Italy is a country of contradictions. The beauty of Italy’s many artworks is balance by the ugly architecture. These often reflect a complicated system that relies on corruption and bribes. Its political scene is no different. In fact, the country’s history has seen many indigenous monstrosities rise and fall.
It was fascism, Benito Mussolini’s two-decades of dictatorship in the first half century. Since 1947’s Portella della Ginestra massacre, the Mafia started wreaking havoc in the country. In the 1970s, the Red Brigades and their politics based on terror dominated the headlines of national newspapers. Silvio Berlusconi’s 1994 rise to power was, undoubtedly, the most absurd. Contradictory, and paradoxical aspect Italy’s inability to accept political anomalies.
It seems, however, that the country is able to create effective antidotes for its own ailments. This holds true for everything from the Resistance. Which fought against fascism to the anti-Mafia group that. In Palermo during the 80s and 1990s, refused to accept the organized crime racket. From the Magistrates for Clean Hands, who exposed the country’s corrupt. System to civil society movements that rejected Berlusconi’s abuse of power in the early 2000s. The strengthening of civil society over the past two decades is undoubtedly one of Berlusconi’s most unexpected consequences.
Italy Civil Society
It is difficult to explain civil society. Norberto Bobbio, an Italian philosopher, suggest that it can be define by comparing it to its antithesis, the state. The latter is essential for the former to exist. Therefore, civil society is always refer to negatively as the domain of social relations that are not regulate or control by the state. Where the state can define narrowly, almost always polemically, as the complex apparatuses that exert coercive power within an organize social system.
Bobbio believes that this negative definition is a result of the Engel/Marxist legalistic language. They used the same term (burgerliche Gesellschaft) to refer to both civil and bourgeois societies, thus distinguishing the realm of civil society (the state) from the sphere in which political power is exercise. The residual echo of state power, which is civil society, is thus refer to as civil society.
Bobbio however differentiates the term between three connotations depending upon whether the realms of the nonstate are associate with the pre-state, anti-state, or post-state.
First, civil society is the precondition of the state. It is composed of various forms of association that individuals have formed to satisfy their own interests. In this instance, the state acts as a superstructure, which regulates the infrastructure and does not hinder or prevent the development of these organizations.
Civil society is view as an alternative or antithesis to the state in the anti-state world. It is the perfect place to foster and strengthen contestations for power. It is seen as a negative by the state because civil society’s challenges could cause the status quo collapse.
Breeding Ground For Conflict Italy
These two distinctions are a reminder that civil society can also be a breeding ground for conflict. There are many possible conflicts. These can be either economic, social or ideological. There are many examples of civil society organizations that work for or against the state, including trade unions, community-based groups, charities and religious congregations. The state and its institutions need to be vigilant in order to maintain social harmony. They must also aim at solving any conflicts that arise within civil society before they become too severe.
If the focus of the relationship between these antagonists is on post-state, then civil italy societies are seen as the destruction and end of state. It is, in fact, the ideal of a society that will be free from the state and which can arise from the dissolution or political power. Bobbio, echoing Antonio Gramsci’s Neo-Marxist theories, suggests that this stage is where political society, which is usually the domain of the state or political parties, is reabsorb into civil society.
This process of reabsorption has important consequences. Society is no longer govern by domination but by hegemony. Gramsci’s reinterpretation of the notion of hegemony reveals the hidden mechanisms that, in capitalist states, consent can be manufacture and class hierarchies strengthened without the need for force.
Political Society And Civil Society
Gramsci views Political Society and Civil Society as the two components and overlapping spheres that make up the modern state. The first governs by force (force), while the second has power through consent. Gramsci sees civil society as more than a group of civic organizations whose primary function is to monitor power’s excesses. This view is only part of a larger picture.
Gramsci considers civil society an ideal place. It is a public sphere in which both power negotiations with the state in form of concessions, and more subtly between competing class through the media and any other institutions that shape the social life of the population can be done to legitimize the cultural hegemony the bourgeoisie versus the working class https://qqonline.bet/.
This is a type of power that is not visible to the naked eye. It is a complex web of interconnected spheres that influence society. The dominant class can eliminate the possibility of revolution by ruling through consent and not strength. Gramsci, therefore, argued in Prison Notebooks, that a counterhegemonic strategy was necessary to offer powerful alternative readings of society, which, in turn can reveal or replace the knowledge-based social structures that continue to legitimize the status quo.
Gramsci’s re-conceptualization of civil society means that it is not only where hegemony can be exercise but also where the power of both the state and dominant class are held accountable and challenge. In the last 20 years, this role has been more important than ever for Italy.